Sigismund, (born Feb. 15, 1368, probably Nürnberg—died Dec. 9, 1437, Znojmo, Bohemia), Holy Roman emperor from 1433, king of Hungary from 1387, German king from 1411, king of Bohemia from 1419, and Lombard king from 1431. The last emperor of the House of Luxembourg, he participated in settling the Western Schism and the Hussite wars in Bohemia.
Sigismund, a younger son of the Holy Roman emperor Charles IV, received from his father the margravate of Brandenburg. Engaged to Maria, daughter of King Louis I of Hungary and Poland, he was sent on his father’s death (1378) to the Hungarian court, where he married Maria. On her father’s death in 1382, Maria became queen of Hungary, and Sigismund was finally crowned as king consort in 1387. The crown of Poland went to Maria’s sister Hedwig (Jadwiga). Sigismund’s throne was seriously challenged for a number of years by the rulers of Naples. In 1388 the king pawned Brandenburg to his cousin Jobst, margrave of Moravia, to raise funds to defend his realm.
Sigismund’s expansionist policy led him to intervene in the struggles between his half brother, the German king Wenceslas, who was also king of Bohemia (as Wenceslas IV), and the Bohemian nobility. After changing sides several times, Sigismund made peace with his brother in 1396 at the Battle of Nicopolis and was appointed vicar general of Germany. He then led a European army against the Turks, who had broken into Serbia and Bulgaria, but was decisively defeated in September 1396, barely managing to escape capture. Although the Bohemian rivalries had deterred Sigismund from preventing Wenceslas’ deposition as German king (1400), he soon exploited the situation and attempted to take Bohemia, imprisoning Wenceslas in 1402. Recalled to Hungary by an invasion, Sigismund released Wenceslas in 1403.
After the death (1410) of Rupert (Wenceslas’ successor to the German crown), both Sigismund and Jobst were elected king by different factions, but at Jobst’s death in 1411 Sigismund became German king. From 1412 to 1413, he campaigned against the Venetians in Italy, where he also persuaded one of the three rival popes, John XXIII, to call a church council at Constance to settle the Western Schism. After his coronation as German king at Aachen (November 1414), he went to Constance to participate in the council. The extent of his complicity in the burning of the Czech reformer Jan Hus (1415), whom the king had invited to the council to defend his views, has never been determined. With the unity of Western Christendom restored (1417), Sigismund hoped to lead a new crusade against the Turks. The campaign that he led against them in 1428, however, was no more successful than the first.
On the death of Wenceslas in 1419, Sigismund inherited the Bohemian crown, but the series of wars fought against the Hussites during the decade of the 1420s, most of which were military disasters for the king’s party, delayed his coronation. Sigismund’s frequent absence from Germany in these years finally caused the princes to form the Union of Bingen, ostensibly to conduct the war against the Hussites but also to protect themselves against the king’s inroads.
In 1431 Sigismund returned to Italy, where he received the Lombard crown. He was crowned emperor two years later and was finally received in Prague as king of Bohemia in 1436.
The Portrait of Sigismund of Luxembourg (Italian: Ritratto di Sigismondo di Lussemburgo) is a tempera on panel painting formerly attributed to the Italian Late-Gothic master Pisanello and probably executed between 1432 and 1433. It is on display at the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna, Austria.
The portrait was possibly executed when King Sigismund travelled to Mantua to vest Gianfrancesco Gonzaga with the title of marquess. In October 1431 the King had travelled to Italy to sojourn at the court of Filippo Maria Visconti in Milan, where he received the Iron Crown of Lombardy. He later also stayed in Lucca and Siena, and would proceed to Rome to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Eugene IV on 31 May 1433.
The portrait obtained an official status, and was copied several times. In 1451 Piero della Francesca was inspired by it for the features of Sigismund of Burgundy of his fresco Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta Praying in Front of St. Sigismund at the Tempio Malatestiano, where he painted the same hat though without the fur filling. The portrait was part of the Imperial collection and housed in the residence of Archduke Ferdinand II of Austria at Ambras Castle near Innsbruck, before being acquired by the Kunsthistorisches Museum.
The attribution to Pisanello is disputed, although supported by a Pisanello drawing of the emperor wearing the same hat, on display at the Louvre in Paris. It was previously attributed to the Salzburg painter Conrad Laib or to a Bohemian artist.
- Ventura, Leandro (1996). "Pisanello". Art dossier. Turin: Giunti (113).